domingo, 2 de junio de 2013

Félix Candela, el arquitecto que unió arte y tecnología

Restaurante Los Manantiales, Xochimolco (México)

El estallido de la Guerra Civil impidió que pudiera disfrutar de una beca de formación en Alemania y le metió de lleno en la contienda civil como capitán del cuerpo de Ingenieros del ejército republicano. Al término de la guerra, y después de un periodo de confinamiento en un campo francés, Félix Candela (Madrid, 1910 – Carolina del Norte, 1997), se exiliará en México, país en el que desarrollará buena parte de su obra arquitectónica, además de ser catedrático en la Universidad NacionalAutónoma de México, y desde 1971, de la de Illinois, en Chicago.

Deportes Pinedo (1951).

Su primera formación la llevó a cabo en la Escuela Superior de Arquitectura de la Universidad Politécnica deMadrid, para, con el paso de los años, ir sumando a esa formación inicial, todos aquellos conocimientos que le permitieron ser además de arquitecto, contratista, ingeniero, constructor de sus propias estructuras, de tal forma que no necesitaba recurrir a otro tipo de profesionales para desarrollar todo su potencial creativo.

Estación de san Lorenzo, Ciudad de México.

La gran aportación de Félix Candela, al que se considera un precursor de la arquitectura sostenible, fueron las cubiertas formadas a partir de estructuras laminares basadas en el uso del paraboloide hiperbólico, que llegarían a ser la seña de identidad de la empresa Cubiertas Alas que cofundó en México.

Iglesia de santa Mónica, México DF.

Estamos hablando de “formas geométricas de doble curvatura que son resistentes por su propia forma, y de entre todas las posibles, fundamentalmente el paraboloide hiperbólico, una superficie reglada que permite ser hormigonada sobre un sencillo encofrado realizado a base de tablas de madera que siguen sus generatrices rectas”, según explica María de la Paz Molinari. Y como decía el propio Candela “se trata de aprovechar más la forma que la masa para conseguir la resistencia y la estabilidad”.

Planta Bacardí.

Utilizando ese concepto, Candela fue capaz de cubrir grandes espacios de tal forma que se generaran unos interiores diáfanos, amplios y luminosos, como es el caso de la fábrica de la empresa de bebidas Bacardí. De ahí derivarán sus famosos “paraguas”, estructuras formadas por una columna central que sostiene cuatro tímpanos al modo de un paraguas abierto y que es posible ver en infinidad de lugares, especialmente en gasolineras y aparcamientos.

Laboratorio de Rayos Cósmicos, México DF (1952).

Una de las obras cumbre de Candela y la última que dejó en México, fue la del Palacio de los Deportes de la capital azteca, construido para formar parte de las instalaciones olímpicas de 1968. En esos finales de los años 60 muchas cosas cambiaron en el mundo, también en los ámbitos de la arquitectura, y Candela tomó la decisión de dejar Cubiertas Alas, y en 1971 se radicará en los Estados Unidos atraído por la Universidad de Illinois.

Palacio de los Deportes, México DF (1968).

La última obra de Candela la podamos disfrutar en España, concretamente en el restaurante del Oceanográfico de Valencia, culminación de una dilatada trayectoria internacional que le convirtió en uno de los grandes arquitectos contemporáneos españoles.

Más información: IVAM, El País, Arquitecturamashistoria.

44 comentarios:

Natàlia Tàrraco dijo...

Hola amigo, culminó en México el entender espacial de Candela, merece tu amable homenaje, rescatador de talentos y esfuerzos que por suerte fraguaron aunque fuera de casa, importa que lo consiguiera. Besito mudo de contento.

Jesus dijo...

La Guerra del 36 supuso una gran diáspora de intelectuales, que abandonaron el país por diferentes motivos, el principal no poder realizar su trabajo aqúi, eso supuso un retraso considerable para todos, hoy desgraciadamente estamos ante una situación similar en los resultados, aunque afortunadamnet por motivos menos violentos
Se agradece que se den a conocer los trabajos de estas personas, para ayudarnos a conocer nuestra historia y si hubiera suerte no tener que repetirla!!!

PACO HIDALGO dijo...

Sí, desgraciadamente, la Guerra Civil le privó una brillante carrera en Europa, aunque pudo desarrollar su nuevo concepto de la arquitectura espacial en América, que tampoco estuvo mal. De todas formas, su arquitecura no está todo lo reconocida que debiera. Saludos, Alfredo.

Alfredo dijo...

NATALIA: Ya sabemos que en este país es norma que los mejores se tengan que ir por las más diversas circunstancias, para terminar volviendo, en algunos casos, como profesionales reconocidos a un nivel que no hubieran conseguido de haber podido quedarse.

Un abrazo grande!

******

JESÚS: Efectivamente, la Guerra Civil rompió la vida de muchas personas en este país. En este caso, Candela tuvo la fortuna de poder salir hacia México y allí poder desarrollar todo su potencial creativo.

Un abrazo!

******

PACO: Creo yo que nunca está de más recordar a aquellas personas que por la circunstancia que fuera, tuvieron que irse de España, en este caso por culpa de un episodio dramático, para poder seguir con sus vidas y poder convertirse en grandes profesionales.

Un abrazo!

casss dijo...

Apenas vi tu buen reportaje, recorde su obra en Valencia, la que disfruté en vivo y en directo.

Un revolucionario que merece todo el reconocimiento.

un fuerte abrazo

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